Author: Ali Amleh
Many analysts believe that the main cause of the conflict in the Middle East region is the Israeli occupation of Palestine. Whenever global politics distracts attention from it, it quickly returns to the lights, to reappear, either by force or from behind the scenes, but it is often present in any political scene. International, Arab, is known as the Arab-Israeli conflict, but internationally, and especially in the eyes of Western countries and their media apparatus, they address the Middle East crisis.
Historically, the international community stands incapable of implementing international legitimacy decisions due to the Israeli intransigence and inability to implement international legitimacy decisions.
The Palestinian issue represents the most important Arab issue related to the Palestinian-Israeli or Arab-Israeli conflict, as it is deep in history, as it appeared in the year 1897 AD, which was the year in which the first Zionist conference was held, which established the idea of establishing a state that would gather the diaspora of the world’s Jews on the Palestinian Arab land and the dispossession of the land from the Palestinians. This land and its original inhabitants, the Zionist movement founded by Theodor Herzl was based on a racist colonial ideology, which aims to establish a Jewish national state in Palestine, and Herzl called for the establishment of a national home for the Jews in Palestine.
Accordingly, Zionism began to set its program and strategy at the Basel Conference in Switzerland in 1897, from which the World Zionist Organization emerged that worked on colonizing Palestine, and created a group of bodies such as the Jewish Agency to oversee the organization of immigration to Palestine to settle it, as for the Jewish Colonial Bank and the Jewish National Fund. They took over the operations of managing public expenditures and purchasing land in Palestine, in addition to a fund that collects donations and finances the immigration of Jews to Palestine, and has branches and offices to colonize the Palestinian land, in addition to that they are accompanied by military militias whose job is to create violence against the Palestinians, most notably the Haganah gang that has committed murders, looting and abuse With the Palestinians.
In the First World War, the Zionist movement persuaded the United States of America to enter the war and upset the balance of power, and Britain bargained in exchange for granting it a national home for the Jews in Palestine. Indeed, Britain fulfilled its promise in 1917 to issue the Balfour Declaration, through which it committed itself to exert efforts to establish a national home for the people. The Jew is in Palestine, and thus Zionism will have achieved privileges after Britain signed the Mandate for it in 1920 as a guarantee for the establishment of a Jewish national home and facilitating the immigration of Jews.
Since that time, the waves of Jewish immigration to Palestine escalated, as the Jews were able to obtain concessions in Palestine, the most important of which was the establishment of agricultural settlements and the opening of new factories, and they worked to protect them from foreign competition, and to encourage Jewish investments, in addition to the Zionist gangs carrying out intimidation, torture and murder of the Palestinian population, In the face of these crimes, the Palestinians were pushed to establish a resistance to defend the land and mankind and to confront the brutal crimes committed by the Zionist gangs. The Palestinian resistance in the interwar period was described as peaceful resistance against Jewish settlement, and it was accepted by the British colonialism issuing the first white book in 1922, to turn after that into Armed resistance against Jewish settlement and the British Mandate, most notably the Al-Buraq Revolution in 1929 and the Revolution of 1933, the Qassam Revolution in 1935, and the Great Revolution in the period 1935-1939 represented by the Palestinians’ general strikes in which Zionist and English products supporting Zionist terrorism and its gang were boycotted, and they entered an armed confrontation Against the Zionists and the English.
In response, Britain issued the second White Paper in 1930, presented the partition project for Palestine in 1937, and finally the third White Paper in 1939.
-in a year. 1964 The Palestine Liberation Organization was established with the aim of liberating the lands occupied by the Jews occupied in 1948, and it gained Arab recognition in 1974 as the sole and legitimate representative of the Palestinian people, and in the same year it became an observant member of the United Nations, and in 1988 the leader Yasser Arafat participated in the work of the General Committee To the United Nations and he said his famous saying, Do not let the green branch fall from my hand.
The Palestinian political resistance took many forms, the most prominent of which was the declaration of the establishment of the State of Palestine in Algeria in 1988 and participation in the international peace conference held in the Spanish capital Madrid on the solution to the Palestinian issue.
Several stations emerged in the Arab-Israeli conflict at the military level in 197I, exemplified by the first Arab-Israeli war in 1973, and in 1948 a war broke out between the Arab countries and Israel after the partition decision, and the challenges of Israel continued until 1949, and ended with Israel controlling (77%) From the territories, and other countries recognize Israel and accept its membership in the United Nations, while the Arab countries refused to recognize Israel, on the grounds that it is an occupying state.
Since the launch of the Palestinian National Liberation Movement in 1965, which took upon itself the reins of matters to confront the Israeli expansion, this prompted the Zionist entity to move quickly and impose a new reality that would guarantee expansion and strengthening its military capacity, and after it strengthened that, it launched a surprise attack on Egypt, Syria and Jordan in May 1967. It ended with its occupation of the Sinai Desert, the Syrian Golan Heights, and what was left of the Palestinian territories.
Faced with this persistence and its refusal to implement United Nations Resolution 242, which affirmed its rejection of the occupation of lands through war and its emphasis on the need for Israeli forces to withdraw from the lands they occupied in 1967, and recognition of the sovereignty and unity of all Arab countries, and as the October war paved the way for the conclusion of the Camp David agreement Under the supervision of the United Nations between Egypt and Israel in 1978, which stipulated the abolition of economic differences and boycotts between Egypt and Israel in exchange for Israel’s withdrawal from the Sinai lands in 1973, and this agreement was opposed by the Arab countries.
Israel, as usual, took advantage of the escalation of Palestinian resistance activity in southern Lebanon to invade its lands in June 1982, and in 1987 the “Children of Stones” intifada began after Israel unlawfully killed Palestinian workers, and it continued until 1994, and in 1988 President Yasser Arafat declared that Algeria, the establishment of the State of Palestine, based on the decisions of the Arab summits and the strength of international legitimacy.
In 1991 negotiations were launched in the Spanish capital, Madrid, on the basis of (land for peace), as well as American pressure on the parties to the conflict, as the Madrid conference was established by revealing the features of a new Middle East under American auspices through negotiations between the Arabs and Israel and multilateral negotiations on the issue of refugees. And territorial waters and security in the region, which resulted in the signing of the Gaza and Jericho agreement.
After 1991, the Palestinian issue passed through several milestones, represented by the Oslo Accord for Autonomy, the strengthening of peace negotiations between the Palestinian Authority and Israel under American auspices, and Egyptian mediation in the Wye River meetings in 1988 and Sharm el-Sheikh 1999.
In the year 2000, US President Bill Clinton’s failure to return President Yasser Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak to the negotiating table, after the leader of the right-wing Likud party “Ariel Sharon” entered the Al-Aqsa Mosque, accompanied by security men, provoking the feelings of the Palestinians, which led to the outbreak of the Al-Aqsa Intifada in all cities The West Bank and the Gaza Strip, which resulted in the death of hundreds of Palestinians and the wounding of thousands.
In 2002, Saudi King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz, the King of the Arab Peace Initiative, launched the Arab Peace Initiative between the Palestinians and the Israelis at the Arab Summit in Beirut, and it was adopted by the Arab and Islamic countries in the Organization of the Islamic Conference.
In 2002, due to the escalation of the conflict in the Middle East, the International Quartet was established, which since its formation has faced great obstacles, the most important of which is that it tried to reconcile the relatively different positions of its components (especially the United States and Russia) of the Oslo Agreement and its applications on the ground, which failed to achieve a settlement. Political since 1993.
In 2003, Israel began building the apartheid wall, which the international community opposed, as it affects the chances of launching peace negotiations between the two parties, as the International Court of Justice considered that the route of the wall is in violation of international law and that the Israeli control of East Jerusalem is an illegal procedure under international law.
Because of the influential Israeli influence in the United States of America, the American Congress in 1995 issued a decision to move the American embassy to Jerusalem and to adopt Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, but this was not implemented due to American concerns.
That such a step would affect US policy in the Middle East, end any attempt to settle and create more hostility against the United States, and accordingly the embassy transfer has been postponed since that time, until US President Donald Trump arrives at the verdict, which was announced on December 6, 2017, with recognition. The United States of America in Jerusalem is the capital of Israel, where he moved the American embassy to Jerusalem, and this decision met angry reactions and rejected by the countries of the world for this decision, and accordingly the Israeli Knesset approved the draft “The Unified Jerusalem Law”,
On January 2, 2018, the Israeli Knesset adopted a decision prohibiting the transfer of parts of occupied Jerusalem to any future settlement with the Palestinians except with the approval of eighty members of the Knesset, and this decision met with international opposition, and it was considered that this law is contrary to the international legitimacy decisions regarding the status of the city of Jerusalem as falling under The occupation, and thus the inadmissibility of any actions that would change the status quo in the city, and these steps undermine opportunities for the future of the peace process and a just settlement of the Palestinian issue.
President Mahmoud Abbas announced at the meeting of the twenty-ninth ordinary session of the Arab League Council that Jerusalem is witnessing an unprecedented settlement attack and called for the adoption and support of the peace plan that he presented in February 2018 at the UN Security Council, and said, “The peace plan, which is based on the Arab initiative, calls for To hold an international peace conference in 2018, it was decided to accept the State of Palestine as a full member of the United Nations, and to form a multilateral international mechanism to sponsor serious negotiations that abide by the decisions of international legitimacy, and implement what was agreed upon within a specific time period.
The Dhahran Declaration issued by the Arab Summit in April 2018 confirmed the centrality of the Palestinian issue to the entire Arab nation, and affirmed the Arab identity of occupied East Jerusalem, as it is the capital of the State of Palestine. It also declared the illegality and acceptance of the American decision regarding recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, affirming that Jerusalem is the capital of the state. Palestine, and the declaration of the nullity of all Israeli measures aimed at changing the features of East Jerusalem and confiscating its true Arab identity, called on the countries of the world not to transfer their embassies to Jerusalem, and the declaration called on the international community to assume its responsibilities in the face of Israeli violations and arbitrary measures against the Al-Aqsa Mosque, which continues to this day.
Faced with all this, it can be said that all the attempts and arbitrary measures that Israel is carrying out in order to obliterate the Palestinian identity and change the historical monuments, should not be ignored, and the international community must stand up to its responsibilities to implement the international legitimacy decisions, to restore the rights of the Palestinian people and establish the Palestinian state with its capital, Jerusalem .